X ray powder diffraction measurements were carried out using a JEOL JDX 3530 instrument using Cu K radiation equipped with a diffracted beam monochromator. The fine powder was packed into a glass sample holder having a rectangle shape with an area of (25 mm 16 mm) 4 cm2 and a depth of 1 mm.
Fundamental Principles of X ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) Max von Laue, in 1912, discovered that crystalline substances act as three dimensional diffraction gratings for X ray wavelengths similar to the spacing of planes in a crystal lattice. X ray diffraction is now a common technique for the study of crystal structures and atomic spacing.
Heavy Mineral Analysis. For instance, occurrence of sillimanite and kyanite indicate high grade metamorphic rocks are in the sediment source area, while presence of Cr spinel indicates contribution from ultra mafic rocks. If further details are required after this conventional HM analysis
Analysis. The heavy minerals are then mounted on a glass slide and examined either using a petrological microscope to identify the minerals or an SEM EDX x ray microanalysis system to identify the chemical composition and identify the mineral. Identification of minerals is a specialist procedure.
This application note describes the use of XRD, together with the Rietveld method and cluster analysis, for phase identification and quantification of heavy mineral sands. XRD can be used to readily identify the mineral phases present in heavy mineral sands, such as ilmenite FeTiO3, rutile TiO2, zircon ZrSiO4, quartz SiO2, anatase TiO2
Heavy mineral analysis begins with disaggregation of grains and sieving to obtain a particular size range, typically in the fine to medium sand size range. Heavy minerals are separated using a heavy liquid with a density of 2.85 g/cm 3.
X Ray Diffraction has long been the Professionals method of choice for mineral ID but at the high cost that most laboratories charge it has been prohibitively expensive for mineral collectors and enthusiasts.
Clay Mineral XRD Sample Preparation and Interpretation Connie Constan, guest lecture QUANTITATIVE X RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF CLAY BEARING ROCKS FROM RANDOM PREPARATIONS Srodon et al 2001 Clay Mineral XRD Sample Preparation and Interpretation
XRF Analyzer for Mineral Exploration. Arsenic (As) is a very common element to use as a pathfinder element for Au. By identifying anomalous As, there is a distinct possibility of tracking Au deposits. Depending on the specific geochemistry of the area being explored, many other elements can also be used as pathfinders for Au such as Ag, copper (Cu),
1.2 Shale. Shale is the most abundant sedimentary rock. Shale is a rock composed mainly of clay size mineral grains and is also called a mud rock. It is a sedimentary rock that is usually formed from the compaction of at least 50% silt and clay size particles.